Leetcode 题解 图

2019/05/24 CyC

文章来源:https://github.com/CyC2018/CS-Notes

二分图

如果可以用两种颜色对图中的节点进行着色,并且保证相邻的节点颜色不同,那么这个图就是二分图。

1. 判断是否为二分图

785. Is Graph Bipartite? (Medium)

Input: [[1,3], [0,2], [1,3], [0,2]]
Output: true
Explanation:
The graph looks like this:
0----1
|    |
|    |
3----2
We can divide the vertices into two groups: {0, 2} and {1, 3}.
Example 2:
Input: [[1,2,3], [0,2], [0,1,3], [0,2]]
Output: false
Explanation:
The graph looks like this:
0----1
| \  |
|  \ |
3----2
We cannot find a way to divide the set of nodes into two independent subsets.
public boolean isBipartite(int[][] graph) {
    int[] colors = new int[graph.length];
    Arrays.fill(colors, -1);
    for (int i = 0; i < graph.length; i++) {  // 处理图不是连通的情况
        if (colors[i] == -1 && !isBipartite(i, 0, colors, graph)) {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}

private boolean isBipartite(int curNode, int curColor, int[] colors, int[][] graph) {
    if (colors[curNode] != -1) {
        return colors[curNode] == curColor;
    }
    colors[curNode] = curColor;
    for (int nextNode : graph[curNode]) {
        if (!isBipartite(nextNode, 1 - curColor, colors, graph)) {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}

拓扑排序

常用于在具有先序关系的任务规划中。

1. 课程安排的合法性

207. Course Schedule (Medium)

2, [[1,0]]
return true
2, [[1,0],[0,1]]
return false

题目描述:一个课程可能会先修课程,判断给定的先修课程规定是否合法。

本题不需要使用拓扑排序,只需要检测有向图是否存在环即可。

public boolean canFinish(int numCourses, int[][] prerequisites) {
    List<Integer>[] graphic = new List[numCourses];
    for (int i = 0; i < numCourses; i++) {
        graphic[i] = new ArrayList<>();
    }
    for (int[] pre : prerequisites) {
        graphic[pre[0]].add(pre[1]);
    }
    boolean[] globalMarked = new boolean[numCourses];
    boolean[] localMarked = new boolean[numCourses];
    for (int i = 0; i < numCourses; i++) {
        if (hasCycle(globalMarked, localMarked, graphic, i)) {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
}

private boolean hasCycle(boolean[] globalMarked, boolean[] localMarked,
                         List<Integer>[] graphic, int curNode) {

    if (localMarked[curNode]) {
        return true;
    }
    if (globalMarked[curNode]) {
        return false;
    }
    globalMarked[curNode] = true;
    localMarked[curNode] = true;
    for (int nextNode : graphic[curNode]) {
        if (hasCycle(globalMarked, localMarked, graphic, nextNode)) {
            return true;
        }
    }
    localMarked[curNode] = false;
    return false;
}

2. 课程安排的顺序

210. Course Schedule II (Medium)

4, [[1,0],[2,0],[3,1],[3,2]]
There are a total of 4 courses to take. To take course 3 you should have finished both courses 1 and 2. Both courses 1 and 2 should be taken after you finished course 0. So one correct course order is [0,1,2,3]. Another correct ordering is[0,2,1,3].

使用 DFS 来实现拓扑排序,使用一个栈存储后序遍历结果,这个栈的逆序结果就是拓扑排序结果。

证明:对于任何先序关系:v->w,后序遍历结果可以保证 w 先进入栈中,因此栈的逆序结果中 v 会在 w 之前。

public int[] findOrder(int numCourses, int[][] prerequisites) {
    List<Integer>[] graphic = new List[numCourses];
    for (int i = 0; i < numCourses; i++) {
        graphic[i] = new ArrayList<>();
    }
    for (int[] pre : prerequisites) {
        graphic[pre[0]].add(pre[1]);
    }
    Stack<Integer> postOrder = new Stack<>();
    boolean[] globalMarked = new boolean[numCourses];
    boolean[] localMarked = new boolean[numCourses];
    for (int i = 0; i < numCourses; i++) {
        if (hasCycle(globalMarked, localMarked, graphic, i, postOrder)) {
            return new int[0];
        }
    }
    int[] orders = new int[numCourses];
    for (int i = numCourses - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
        orders[i] = postOrder.pop();
    }
    return orders;
}

private boolean hasCycle(boolean[] globalMarked, boolean[] localMarked, List<Integer>[] graphic,
                         int curNode, Stack<Integer> postOrder) {

    if (localMarked[curNode]) {
        return true;
    }
    if (globalMarked[curNode]) {
        return false;
    }
    globalMarked[curNode] = true;
    localMarked[curNode] = true;
    for (int nextNode : graphic[curNode]) {
        if (hasCycle(globalMarked, localMarked, graphic, nextNode, postOrder)) {
            return true;
        }
    }
    localMarked[curNode] = false;
    postOrder.push(curNode);
    return false;
}

并查集

并查集可以动态地连通两个点,并且可以非常快速地判断两个点是否连通。

1. 冗余连接

684. Redundant Connection (Medium)

Input: [[1,2], [1,3], [2,3]]
Output: [2,3]
Explanation: The given undirected graph will be like this:
  1
 / \
2 - 3

题目描述:有一系列的边连成的图,找出一条边,移除它之后该图能够成为一棵树。

public int[] findRedundantConnection(int[][] edges) {
    int N = edges.length;
    UF uf = new UF(N);
    for (int[] e : edges) {
        int u = e[0], v = e[1];
        if (uf.connect(u, v)) {
            return e;
        }
        uf.union(u, v);
    }
    return new int[]{-1, -1};
}

private class UF {

    private int[] id;

    UF(int N) {
        id = new int[N + 1];
        for (int i = 0; i < id.length; i++) {
            id[i] = i;
        }
    }

    void union(int u, int v) {
        int uID = find(u);
        int vID = find(v);
        if (uID == vID) {
            return;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < id.length; i++) {
            if (id[i] == uID) {
                id[i] = vID;
            }
        }
    }

    int find(int p) {
        return id[p];
    }

    boolean connect(int u, int v) {
        return find(u) == find(v);
    }
}

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